miércoles, 30 de julio de 2014

In the land of Pisco... The Five Pisco Regions: Arequipa


By Alejandro Málaga Núñez-Zeballos
Academia Peruana del Pisco, Arequipa.

Translated by Katrina Heimark

The origin of the commercialization of wine in Arequipa (16th Century)

The presence of wine in Arequipa was initially in the wineskins that the first Spanish carried through the Chili River Valley in 1535. Later
 wine was present throughout the founding of Arequipa, during the mass and the toast of honor. It was present as well in the grid outlining ceremony and the installation of the pillories; and much later in each of the political and religious authorities’ homes, as well as the homes of the colonists, artisans and even chiefs.
Civil wars between the conquistadors disrupted the city during the first twenty years after its founding. Hikes in prices and the interruption of the flow of merchandise from the Iberian Peninsula to the ports of Quilca and Chule happened often during those years. The principal families of the city possessed apple, orange, grape and quince orchards on the left bank of the river; all of which were to be consumed as fruits. The lack of wine was made up for in jugs brought from Andalucia and Castilla, but which were very costly.

On January 1, 1546, a ship arrived to Quilca with merchandise such as different quality fabrics, shirts, breeches, shoes, birds, pigs, horses, etc, and principally, jugs of wine and oil, which were carried from the coast to the city of Arequipa by Yanacona Indians, who were sent by Yarabaha and Chilque Chiefs. It seems that this was not a good idea, because on March 13, the civil council revoked the ordinance, and prohibited the sale of wine without a previous measure. They also established that blacks could not “have” more than one Indian woman. Seven months later, the authority reconsidered and ordered that Indians must carry all merchandise, and that merchants must pay chiefs according to the established ordinances.

At the beginning of the year 1547, Gonzalo Pizarro was the governor and his Lieutenant Capitan in Arequipa, Juan de Silveira, ordered “that merchants moderate themselves in the sale of wine, which has increased in price. They must be mandated to lower the price. The most expensive, of 20 pesos, is not to be sold at a higher price, under penalty of 200 gold pesos, half for His Majesty’s coffers, and the other half for the judge who emits the sentence.

At the end of the decade, there were bars that served food and wine to citizens and travelers, but none were regulated by tariffs. Thus, the prices of wine were very different, and in some cases, wines were very expensive and generated complaints from citizens, or they were very cheap and “often were sold to slaves, and for watching blacks dance taquies (frenetic dances) during their parties. Often some blacks killed each other and did some very ugly things while in the service of God.” Thus, the authorities ordered that no one sell wine to slaves if they didn’t have an identity card mentioning their owner: “on pain of 10 gold pesos; let it be made public that no slave will dance taquies in any part of the city, nor outside of the city, and if they do, the sheriff will seize them and they will be given 100 lashes while tied to the pillory.” Also, for the first time a price was established for the wayside inns of the cities of Vítor, Siguas, Camaná, Ocoña, Atico, Atiquipa, Acarí, Chule, Chiguata, y Quilca; a quartile (half liter) of white wine was to cost 6 tomines, and a quartile of red wine 1 peso and 2 tomines.

 By 1557, prosperous farms of various crops, such as corn, potato, onion, wheat and vineyards, surrounded Arequipa. They were constantly affected by livestock that passed through the area in a disorderly fashion. Thus, authorities decreed that “any livestock such as sheep or pigs or goats or cattle, and all light-weighing livestock caught damaging vineyards in this city will have, under all terms, the penalty taking place on the fifth day. The penalty will be the taking of from 5 to 50 heads of livestock. And if it happens by night the penalty is to be doubled. The penalty will be paid in two parts; one for the owner of the land or vineyard or estate, and the other part to the judge as well as half for the city’s public works.

Clearly, the disposition protected the wine-producing areas because they were the first plantings to be used for wine production. Wine commerce during the first two decades after the founding of Arequipa were initially important; later merchants took notice of their high profitability and acquired land to become wine producers.

Pisco bilingual magazine

miércoles, 23 de julio de 2014

In the land of Pisco... The Five Pisco Regions (Tacna)

Pisco / Peru more than 400 years of History & Tradition (1613-2013)

Translate by Katrina Heimark

By Oenologist and Engineer Patricia Linares

The “Tacna Sour” celebrates the 30 year anniversary of its creation in Southern Peru

The emblematic Tacna cocktail has even won over Chileans

Its captivating smell and flavor is what makes it unique, curious and irresistible. Its principal ingredient is “Liquor from macerated apricots.” This traditional cocktail from Tacna is the indelible mark of Tacna dwellers, and it doesn’t only win over Peruvians, but also principally Chileans in the cities of Arica and Iquique. The cocktail is present in famous and popular restaurants, and one can see in menus names such as Pisco Sour, Chilcano de Pisco, Capitan, and others, as well as the unexpected “Tacna Sour,” which is prepared with ingredients that are similar to those in Peru. The Chileans use these names knowing very well that the cocktail originates both in name and preparation from Tacna, and uses ingredients from the city as well. This emblematic cocktail is made only with fruits from the Tacna and Pisco Valleys, and with Negra Criolla Grapes.

The Typical Drink from Tacna
August 6th was the 30th anniversary of the creation of the drink, which has been the emblematic appetizer in the celebration of the reincorporation of Tacna to the National Estate since 1981. Starting in 2009, Municipal ordinance Nº 21-2009 declared the first Saturday in August as “Tacna Sour Day.”

This August the historic Zela House was the location in which the regional competition called “The Best Tacna Sour” took place. It was promoted by the Provincial Municipality of Tacna and the regional Department of Tourism. The participation of restaurants, bartenders, cuisine schools, institutes, universities and enthusiasts made this initiative possible. The competition not only promotes the consumption of this emblematic drink, it also strengthens the regional identity of this product. The winners of the 2011 Tacna Sour competition were: Jose Luis Reto in the Institute Category, Gildemaro Condori in the Pub Category, and Paola Francis in the Restaurant Category.

Tacna Sour Preparation
3 oz Tacna Apricot Liquor
1 oz cane sugar
1 oz lime juice
1 dash egg white
Crushed Ice

Liquefy apricot liquor, cane sugar, lime and ice. When mixed, add the egg white and liquefy a few seconds more. Optional: Serve with a drop of Angostura Bitters.

This cocktail must use as a base “the apricot [that] must be from the Chucatamani Valley, located in the province of Tarata in Tacna.” This area is an excellent producer of the apricot and is located in the mountainous region of Tacna. It is populated by friendly, hardworking and festive people; their carnivals are characterized with music and dances to the rhythm of the zampoña and enveloped in intense aromas of apricots and radiant plums. Wonderful liquors can be made from these fruits, just like liquors made from quince, pears and figs.

There are versions that attribute the invention and name of the Tacna Sour simultaneously to barman Juan Soto Saico, who worked in the touristic restaurant “Rancho San Antonio,” and to Don Cesar Chiarella Arce and family, owners of said local. The drink was originally called “ The Rancho Sour.” Thanks to the circumstances and inventiveness of these people, they have blessed the palates of the people of Tacna with the creation. This cocktail is the most representative of that heroic city.

It is important to mention that apricots are produced in Tacna and Moquegua and in these regions they prepare exquisite liquors with fruits or macerated fruits. It is important to keep in mind that genetic variability, adaptation to the area, the water used for irrigation, and the daylight hours all affect the apricots. At the same time, these factors assure that the apricots are optimally developed, as well as give them their individual seal as a regional fruit, and with especially marked organoleptic characteristics. This is why the Tacna Sour must be prepared specifically with liquor obtained from the maceration of Tacna apricots.

Celebrating the holidays of my dear city of Tacna has allowed me to give toasts with a delicious Tacna sour, which I would define as having a sort of elegance of yesteryear, a classic that mixes finesse and a sweeping sensual force that always leaves a mark.

Tasting Notes: Tacna Sour
In the visual aspect, the cocktail is lightly amber in color. Immediately one perceives in the nose an intensity and refinement of apricot, with a hint of lime. In the mouth, the start of an apricot flavor predominates which then is transformed into a mix of perfect sweet and sour, which is harmonious with the drink’s alcoholic weight. It is refreshing, delicate, aromatic and exotic. It is ideal for appetizers or for any occasion.

People from Tacna, and our Chilean friends perhaps more so, love this cocktail because it is so full of aromas and happiness. But in order to understand the marvelous experience that is lived through this cocktail, it must be tasted!

And Cheers with Tacna Sour!


Pisco bilingual magazine

domingo, 6 de julio de 2014

In the land of Pisco... Pisco Around the World "Pisco in San Francisco"

Pisco /Peru more than 400 years of History & Tradition (1613-2013).
“We were not the first…”

By Guillermo Toro-Lira

In the 1950s and 60s, Casa Ranuzzi was one of the biggest exporters of Pisco in the United States. Using innovative marketing techniques and a good distribution network, the company was able to successfully popularize the brand “Inca Pisco” in the US. This Pisco, produced in Ica, was bottled in ceramic vessels with Inca and Lima motifs.

As a promotional product, they also created 50ml ceramic miniatures with more than one hundred different designs, forms and colors. They also published creative advertisements in gourmet
 magazines where they presented the Pisco Sour recipe, thus promoting not only Inca Pisco, but also its most popular cocktail.

How did this imaginative initiative begin? Why did Casa Ranuzzi decide to enter the United States’ market? It seems that we have found the answer to these questions.

The first clue that sheds light on these questions is from a prominent advertisement which was published in the newspaper El Comercio on November 25, 1944, which reads “¡SALUD!... CON PISCO COCKTAIL” (“CHEERS!...WITH PISCO COCKTAIL”). It was published by Mario Ranuzzi, founder of the aforementioned Casa Ranuzzi, originally from Bologna Italy, and who came to Peru during the first half of the 20th Century where he dedicated himself to the manufacturing of liquors.

At the end of the 1930s, the mythical Pisco Punch was still very popular in San Francisco, California, even after an unfortunate thirteen year absence due to Prohibition. During this decade, it was produced and bottled by more than four San Francisco companies.

A comparison of the advertisement seen in El Comercio and the label on the bottle demonstrate that the typographic design of both is identical. This proves that Ranuzzi was familiar with the Pisco Punch of California, and that he commercialized a similar drink in Lima. However, it seems that it wasn’t very popular with the people of Lima, and after a while, Ranuzzi decided to change tactics. He developed Inca Pisco with his marketing machine and pointed his business, this time, towards the north. While he did so, however, he constantly elevated the mysticism of the Pisco Punch and Pisco itself.

PS. A demonstration of the popularity and success that Inca Pisco had in the United States is the large quantity of ceramic miniatures that still exist and can be found for sale on the internet.

Translated by Katrina Heimark

Sección: *El Pisco en el mundo

El Pisco en San Francisco

No fuimos los primeros  Guillermo Toro-Lira

En las décadas de 1950 y 1960, la Casa Ranuzzi era una de las más grandes exportadoras de Pisco en los Estados Unidos.  Utilizando técnicas innovadoras de mercadotecnia y una buena red de distribución, la compañía llegó a popularizar con éxito la marca Inca Pisco en el país norteamericano. Este Pisco, producido en Ica, era embotellado en vasijas de cerámica con motivos incaicos y limeños.  
Como producto promocional también se crearon cerámicos de miniatura de 50 ml de capacidad, valiéndose para ello de más de cien diseños diferentes entre formas y colores. También se publicaron en revistas gourmet propagandas creativas donde se presentaba la receta del Pisco Sour, publicitando de esta manera tanto al Inca Pisco como la preparación predilecta.

¿Cómo se inició esta iniciativa tan imaginativa? ¿Por qué se decidió por el mercado estadounidense? Parece ser que se ha encontrado una respuesta. 

La pista es una prominente propaganda publicada en el diario El Comercio el 25 de noviembre de 1944 que lee: "¡SALUD!... CON PISCO COCKTAIL".  Fue publicada por Mario Ranuzzi, fundador de la mencionada Casa Ranuzzi, natural de Boloña, Italia, y llegado al Perú durante la primera mitad del siglo XX donde se dedicó a la manufactura de licores.

A fines de la década de 1930, el mítico Pisco Punch todavía era muy popular en San Francisco, California, aun después de su desafortunada ausencia de trece años debido a la ley seca de ese país.  En esa década fue producido por más de cuatro compañías san franciscanas de manera embotellada.

Una comparación de la propaganda de El Comercio y de la etiqueta de la botella muestra que el diseño tipográfico de ambas es idéntico. Esto prueba que Ranuzzi era familiar con el Pisco Punch de California y que comercializó una bebida similar en Lima.  Sin embargo, ésta parece no haber atraído a la colectividad limeña y después de algún tiempo Ranuzzi decide dar un giro completo. Desarrolla Inca Pisco con toda su maquinaria mercadotécnica y apunta el negocio esta vez hacia el norte, pero siempre llevando sobre el hombro el misticismo del Pisco Punch y del Pisco.

PD. Una muestra de la popularidad y éxito que tuvo Inca Pisco en los Estados Unidos es la gran cantidad de las miniaturas de cerámica existentes actualmente en el comercio internet de ese país.